It is assumed that all this took place in what is called India today. It is possible that it did not take place in India. The fact that there is a ‘Dvaraka’ in India is no problem; there is a ‘Bethlehem’ in several countries of the world, in addition to the one where Jesus is believed to have been born.
The wholesome influence of even such beings as Krsna does not seem to last beyond their own life-span on earth. Disciples and devotees do not inherit divinity!
This was the sublime vision or realisation of sage Suka. To the reader it is only an image, however grand and inspiring. One should beware of basking in reflected glory, which leads to foolish self-deception. It is only when the "vision of the gross material world" vanishes from one's innersight that the vision of God is possible. That is what the yogi allude to as viveka (discrimination) or vairagya (dispassion) or tyaga (renunciation).
Several theories of creation are found in the Bhagavatam itself, some abstract and some picturesque. But, all of them imply the eternal existence of one reality, in which all these 'creations' appear. The descriptions of creation are worthy of the attention of scientists.
Details of the story will appear in the course of the main book.
These four verses are regarded as the quintessence of the Bhagavatam.
The 'gods' are the intelligences that govern the functions of the body and the mind. When the craving-motivated ego does not interfere with them, they function in accordance with the Lord's will, which we call nature.
The human body is known as ‘kaya’ in Sanskrit, which means ‘that which belongs to Brahma (Ka).In Egyptian ‘ka’ means ‘soul’.
‘Earth’ here may mean this earth, or the solar system, or the entire material creation which was established solidly in infinite space.
The description given in this chapter seems to allude to a cosmic event. Hiranya means gold. Kasipu is a bed. Akse is eye or axle. Maybe celestial collision is described?
Had the earth fallen into the ‘black hole’ (of modern science) and had to be retrieved?
Even here the description of a fight between the Lord, the foremost among the beings of light – and the demon, a force of darkness – has the ring of a collision between the celestial bodies, either just preceding of just after the formation of the earth.
All the names denote psychological categories and the whole chapter should be deeply meditated upon.
Daksa means dexterity. All faculties (which are the gods) honour it, except the creator and the redeemer. Dexterity minus devotion to the redeemer explains the above episode.
Cases of spontaneous combustion have been known throughout history. People catching fire without apparent cause or intention.
The battlefield may be the modern Tibet; and the weapons very similar to modern weapons.
The missile referred to in the first paragraph might have been a nuclear weapon. The fact that one knows one's cause to be righteous, need not compel one to indulge in violence. The only way to end all violence is indicated in the last paragraph.
It is believed that this Dhruva shines even today as the pole star.
The first paragraph suggests an extraordinary biological possibility.
One of the meanings of the word 'raja' is 'one who pleases'.
The whole chapter is a beautiful allegory, dramatising the acts of a noble king and enunciating his duties. Even the earth's remonstrance can be understood only when we realise that, though deforestation may sometimes be decided upon for producing more food, forests exist to ensure rainfall and the purification of the atmosphere.
The meaning of this allegory is explained subsequently. Please see 6th April.
Dvandva in the text is translated ‘pairs of opposites’. But the literal meaning is ‘dualism’. They come in pairs: pain and pleasure, happiness and unhappiness. But they are not really opposites.
The seven continents may also refer to seven orbits in space, considering the distances and the descriptions given, especially that the oceans dividing the continents were formed by the satellite.
Can a human being be re-born as an animal? Why not? Do animals have no intelligence comparable to humans; do they invariably 'forget' the memories of past incarnations? The story suggests other possibilities. If we are unable to communicate with animals, it is not all their fault.
The concept of the supreme being as the wheel of time is interesting. It it, our intelligence that reckons time using the revolution of the earth, the moon around the earth, the earth around the sun, the solar system around the 'axis, of the galaxy' the galaxy around the centre of the milky way etc., these being but the measure which is ordained by the Lord, the supreme intelligence.
The 'knot of ignorance' is the foolish assumption of the great importance of this earth! Of this are born other assumptions - that this is the only dwelling of living beings. And, of this are born greed, hate, violence and a mad clinging to this earthly life.
The various planes and hells may refer to other planets in ever other galaxies. The spirit is not subject to gravitation and can there fore move on to the most distant galaxies. Sesa is another name for Ananta. Sesa implies the reality that remains after all its appearances have been eliminated.
The last paragraph is a brief translation of the prayer at the top.
The last paragraph (with the exception of the last sentence) is the translation of the verses on top of this page.
Perhaps these were like earth-satellites or 'space platforms' that modern science hopes to set up in space?
The second paragraph is the translation of the sanskrit hymn selected for this page.
The whole episode seems to be an allegory which should be meditated upon and understood. It may be a description of kundalini yoga. And it may be also a description of some astronomical phenomenon.
The prayer addressed to Siva uses the same expressions as the prayer addressed to Visnu elsewhere in the scripture - revealing their essential identity.
This at once frees 'religion' from limitations of time (for every epoch or period of time has its own teacher and law-giver, who are part-manifestations of the Lord), and the limitations of space (every part of the universe, not only of this earth, has its own teacher and law-giver) and makes religion universal. That which is universal and undivided, that which leads man to the direct realisation of the universal is 'religion': all else is bondage.
The appropriate mantra and several details have been given in the original text.
The scripture says that when the Lord is pleased he bestows prosperity on his devotee. Elsewhere in it, the scripture mentions that when the Lord wants to bless he deprives the devotee of prosperity. Both these (prosperity and adversity) are from him. Yet, not so: once again the scripture affirms; that prosperity and adversity are in the mind, in thinking, and the wise man does not attribute these to any other cause.
The glorification of devotion to the Lord is obvious. But, the 'Lord's discus' may be the psychological guilt-complex from which no one - not even God - can redeem the guilty. Forgiveness has to be obtained from the offended one. Reconciliation is the only expiation.
The expression may also mean : there was only one ‘science’ – the science of the universal – only one god who is the universal person, and one colour or caste of people with the colour of fire.
In Israel, there is a place called Hazor where archeologists have unearthed evidence that the ancient city was destroyed twenty-one times.
'Bharasva' means 'fill' the vessel. This became 'Bharata'.
Nanda was Yadoda's husband.
The word 'adrstha' in the text is translated into 'the fruit of one's past actions'; it is sometimes known as karma, destiny, fate or luck. Literally it means: 'the unseen'.
The text od this chapter is of surpassing beauty.
Beings include divine, demoniacal and human.